Adjective Clause” olarak da adlandırılan “Relative Clause” lar bize cümle içinde açıklayıcı bir bilgi verir , mesela söyle bir cümlemiz olsun:
– The young woman bumped into me in the street. She gave me a book
Bu iki cümle hangi genç kadından bahsedildiğini belirtmek için birleştirilebilir
– The young woman who bumped into me in the street gave me a book.
“who bumped into me in the street” cümlesi esas cümlenin içinde yer alan küçük bir cümledir. Bu cümle “Relative Clause” diye adlandırılır.
Cansızlar ve Hayvanlar için
örn: A building was destroyed in the fire .It has now been rebuilt
The building that/which was destroyed in the fire has now been rebuilt.
örn: Some people were arrested. They have now been released
The people who/that were arrested have now been released.
Who , that , which’ i baazen hiç kullanmasak ta olur
Who,that,which ‘ ten sonra ÖZNESİ olan bir cümle başlıyorsa ; who,that,which ‘ i hiç yazmasak ta olur. Fakat who,that,which bir öznenin yerine kullanılıyorsa mutlaka yazmak zorundayız, bir nesnenin yerine kullanılıyorlarsa yazmasak ta olur.
1.The woman who I wanted to see was away.
– The woman I wanted to see was away.
2.Have you found the keys that you lost
– Have you found the keys you lost
3.The dress that Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well
– The dress Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well
Örn: The woman lives next door. She is a doctor
The woman who lives next door is a doctor ( She düştü yani: özne düştü burada who veya that mutlaka yazılmalıdır.)
Örn: Have you found the keys? you lost them.
Have you found the keys which you lost ( them düştü yani : nesne düştü )
Have you found the keys you lost.
We use WHOSE in relative clause instead of his / her / their
1. We saw some people whose (their) car had broken down
2. A widow is a woman whose (her) husband is dead
3. I met a man whose (her) sister knows you
You can use WHERE in relative clause to talk about a place
1. The hotel – we stayed there – wasn’t very clean
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean
WHAT = the thing (s) that
1. Did you hear what they said ( the things that they said )
2. Tell me what you want and I ‘ ll try to get it for you.
3. I don’t agree with what you ‘ve just said.
4. I don’t trust him. I don’t believe anything that he says (what kullanılmaz)
I don’t believe anything he says.
What kullanılmış olsaydı : anything the thing that he says. OLMAZ
5. They give their children everything that they want. (what kullanılmaz)
They give their children everything they want.
what kullanılmış olsa : everything the thing that they want. OLMAZ
Whom sadece yazı ingilizcesinde kullanılır ve who , that , which ‘ in hiç yazılmasa da ( who bir nesnenin yerine kullanılmışsa ) olduğu durumlarda who nun yerine whom kullanılır.
örn: The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday
The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday.
The woman I wanted to see was away on holiday.
Whom preposition larla da kullanılır ( to whom , from whom , with whom….)
The woman with whom he fell in love , left him after a few weeks ( he fell in love with her. )
İki tür relative clause vardır:
type 1 : The woman who lives next door is a doctor. ( Burada who kadın hakkında bize bilgi veriyor.)
type 2 : My brother jim , who lives in london, is a doctor. ( Buradaki who my brother’i açıklamıyor çünkü zaaten onun jim olduğu verilmiş —- işte bu tip relative clauseler , extra information veren tiptekilerdir.ve bunlar: iki virgül arasına alınırlar , extra information ,
Extra information veren relative clauselerin özellikleri:
1. Bunlarda that kullanılmaz. yani:
Kişiler için sadece who ,
Nesneler için sadece which kullanılır.
2. who ve which’ i mutlaka kulllanmak zorundasın , ihmal edemezsin.
3. Where , whose ,whom kullanışları yine aynıdır.
örn: john , who speaks french , works as a tourist guide
örn: Colin told me about his new job , which he is enjoying very much ,
örn: We stayed at the Grand hotel , which Ann recommended to us ,
örn: This morning I met Diane , whom / who I hadn’t seen for ages ,
In extra information clauses . You can use a preposition before whom and which ( to whom / with whom / about which / for which…..)
örn: Fortunately we had a map , without which we would have got lost
örn: This is mr carter ; who I was telling you about.
NOT: Konuşma ingilizcesinde ise prepositionlar genellikle relative clausenin verb (fiil) in den sonra gelir.
all of , most of , non of , neither of , any of , either of , some of , many of , much of (a) few of , both of , half of , each of , one of , two of
+ whom (people)
+ which (things)
örn : Marry has three brothers , All of them are married
Mary has three brothers , All of whom are married.
örn: Two men , neither of whom I had ever seen before , come into my office.
örn: They ‘ ve got three cars , two of which they never use.