Active (Etken) cümle yapısında , İşin özne tarafından yapıldığı bellidir , Passive (Edilgen) cümlelerde ise özne belirsizdir , yani isi yapan belli degildir
Verbs that can be used in the passive :
1.Most transitive verbs can be used in the passive. A transitive verb is a verb which has an object.
The thief was caught by police
2. Intransitive verbs cannot be used in the passive . An intransitive verb is a verb which does not have an object.
Rodney fell and hurt his leg.
Passive constructions with the infinitive:
Doğru olup olmadığını bilmediğimiz bir bilgi aktar mak istediğimizde veya bu bilginin kaynağını vermek istemediğimizde passive yapıyı şu fiillerle kullanırız :
think ,believe , report , consider , know , say , expect , + infinitive
1. Bilgi şu anki bir durumla ilgiliyse :
passive + infini tive
örn: The queen is believed to be one of the richest people in the world.
örn: Mr Smit is thought to be staying with friends
2. Bilgi geçmişteki bir durumla ilgiliyse:
passive + the past infinitive ( to have + past participle )
örn: Cher is said to have had a face lift.
NOT: The passive of doing = being done ,
seeing = being seen.
Active: I don’t like people telling me what to do
Passive: I don’t like being told what to do
Active: Mr Miller hates people keeping him waiting
Passive:Mr miller hates being kept waiting
Simple Present :
Active : Mary helps john
Passive : john is helped by Mary
Active : Mary is helping john
Passive : john is being helped by Mary
Active : Mary has helped john
Passive : john has been helped by Mary
Active : Mary helped john
Passive : john was helped by Mary
Active : Mary was helping john
Passive : john was being helped by Mary
Active : Mary had helped john
Passive : john had been helped by Mary
Active : Mary will help john
Passive : john will be helped by Mary
Be going to:
Active : Mary is going to help john
Passive : john is going to be helped by Mary
Active : Mary will have helped john
Passive : john will have been helped Mary
Note: The continuous forms of the present perfect , past perfect , future and future perfect are very rarely used in the passive.